Chariot Racing in the Archives


On any given Saturday, thousands of Americans are giving garage sales and tens of thousands, maybe hundreds of thousands are looking over these dubious treasures as they lay on card tables set up on the driveway and the lawn.  One thought that must strike anyone who has glanced over these accumulations is that one person, one family in a lifetime sure collects a lot of stuff.  Some of it is obvious – old TV guides, second best dinner settings.  Others are inexplicable – a 1300-year-old coin, a vintage Monopoly board game.  Archivists too, often have the same revelation.  When we get the papers of an individual, it is because they contain substantial information on the topic which is the archives’ main area of interest.  But there will be other things as well that reflect all the unexpected corners one encounters when intruding in the remains of another person’s life.

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Take, for example, Grace Liddell Cox.  Grace was born in 1906 and went to China as a missionary with China Inland Mission in 1934 until she came back to the United States in 1944, having been a witness to the Gospel through war and revolution. Shortly after her return she died, in 1946.  The BGC Archives collects documents about the history of evangelism and missions and Grace’s papers, donated to the Archives by her daughter, contain much that illuminates the part played by women in the 20th century church, the patterns of American missionary efforts, the development of Christianity in China and many other relevant topics.  The accession also documents plenty of other topics, not exactly irrelevant, but different.  Her letters and diaries and scrapbooks and memorabilia shed light on the life of Western Union College, which she attended; the thoughts and actions of an American woman, wife, and mother in the 1930s and ‘40s; and even the nature of cinematic extravaganza of the 1920s as typified by the movie Ben Hur.

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As a young woman of 19 Grace may have attended the film or anyway someone had been impressed enough by the film to pay the whopping 25 cent price for the program sold at the movie theater.  She kept it with her scrapbooks.  Ben Hur, subtitled A Tale of the Christ, was written by an American Civil War general, became an instant best seller, and has been produced as a play and movie many times.  There is usually more emphasis on the spectacular as opposed to the historical or the theological, but it is undoubtedly a rattling good tale.  The 18-page program described in loving detail the production of the 1925 silent film, using a cast of thousands, as the phrase goes, on two continents.  The program contains as well as dozens of images from the film (a few of which are on this page), plot summaries, a history of the book and more.

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And Judah Ben-Hur, as he races Messala one more time across our blog, serves as a reminder that a person’s life is made up of many parts.  In the Archives, when we get a person’s papers, we get a few remaining fragments which allow us to glimpse, perhaps, through the documentation of a life’s major actions and minor interests, all the variety and mystery in every God-created human soul.

More details about Grace Liddell Cox’s life and ministry are found in Someone to Be with Roxie: The Life Story of Grace Reed Liddell Cox Missionary in China 1934-1944 (Miriam G. Moran), a biography written by Cox’s daughter.

Tibet Through Victor Plymire’s Camera

As a major research center dedicated to evangelism and global missions, the BGC Archives houses a wide swath of materials from around the world – missionaries’ prayer letters from Peru, family correspondence from Iran, radio broadcasts from Monaco, church records in Swahili, travel reports from Russia, evangelistic tracts from China, maps of Tanzania, blueprints from Japan, and much more.

All missionaries, to some extent, document the culture where they serve—its people, customs, food, music, languages, landscape, and history. For many missionaries and Christian aid workers, this documentation is merely a small part of their work. It appears in throwaway line in a prayer letter to supporters at home, a handful of bullet points in the annual report for the mission headquarters, or a detailed paragraph in a personal diary entry. Together, these fragments can offer researchers today a glimpse into the experiences of past Christian workers as they encountered the new, unexpected, and often bewildering realities of missionary service around the globe.

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Victor Plymire in Tibet. Undated.

This August, the BGC Archives showcases one such item—a stunning photograph album created by Assemblies of God missionary Victor Plymire between 1926 and 1930. For nearly four decades, Victor Plymire (1881-1956) lived, toured, evangelized, and planted churches throughout Tibet. For much of his ministry, Plymire traveled with the Tibetan trade caravans that crisscrossed the country. Each stop along the trade route—cities, lamaseries, temples, and remote outposts—presented an opportunity to both preach the Christian gospel and document the local culture. A gifted amateur photographer, Plymire’s photographs reveal not only his exceptional eye for detail, but also his deep fascination with the Tibetan people and landscape. His photos and silent, black and white film footage capture the bustle and vibrancy of Tibetan cities, temples, and festivals, alongside breathtaking images of lonely mountain ranges and sprawling plains.

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Plymire’s caption: “A Tibetan Christian receiving a Gospel Poster. 1930.”

Plymire’s photography, however, also served a practical purpose. Once captured, the images were developed, printed, and pasted into sturdy, black photograph albums, which Plymire used to describe his ministry to friends and supporters back home in the United States. A common practice for furloughing missionaries, Plymire relied on his own films and photos to acquaint his supporting churches with basic details about Tibetan life and culture in the 1920s and ‘30s.

Unlike many personal scrapbooks held in the BGC Archives, Plymire’s photo albums are a model of careful arrangement and description. Each image is carefully positioned, dated, and labeled in white ink with Plymire’s tidy cursive handwriting.


An example of Plymire’s meticulous record keeping. His captions read: (Left) “The main street of our city looking East. 1929.” (Right) Mr. Meng, One of our colporteurs. 1930.”

While this photo album contains images ranging from 1926-1930, it especially documents Plymire’s evangelistic expedition of 1927-1928. After sailing for Tibet in 1922, Plymire founded an Assemblies of God mission station at Tangar (now Huangyuan) in the northeast, and it was two years before the mission had its first convert to Christianity.


“A native of central Tibet, 1927-1928.”

Despite the slow growth of the church in Tangar and the tragic loss of his wife and son to smallpox in 1927, Plymire was undeterred in his evangelistic efforts and began planning an ambitious expedition to bring the gospel to the remotest regions of Tibet—a journey that snaked south from Tangar across Tibet, though Nepal, and into India. The expedition set out on May 18, 1927 and reached Calcutta nearly a year later. Along the way, Plymire trained his camera lens on all levels of Tibetan society, capturing high holy holidays in Buddhist temples, isolated herders, and everything in between. The photograph on the right is just one of many nameless Tibetan men and women who captured Plymire’s imagination. The images below offer only a brief sampling of Tibet through Victor Plymire’s camera lens.

The scenes below find Plymire and his caravan in somewhere in Ladakh along the Indus River. The Buddhist Hemis Monastery is still located in modern Kashmir, India. 


Plymire’ captions: (Above) “We slept under the shelter of this rock one cold winter night. ‘Wild Yak- Wild Ass.’ In Ladak along the Indus R. 1927-1928.” (Below): “At Hemis monastery in Ladak a Religious dance.”

Plymire especially documented the details of Tibetan religious life—filming religious festivals, visiting monasteries, and noting spiritual practices. In the album pages below, he showcased scenes from Kumbum Monastery, built in 1583 by the third Dalai Lama.


Plymire’s caption for the bottom right image: “Prayer wheel at Kum Bum being turned by pilgrims and priests – 1928.”

In several pages of this album, Plymire captures the vibrant spiritual life and practices at Kumbum, including images of the sacred Tree of Great Merit, religious dances, offerings, pilgrims, and prayers.


A detailed look at bottom left image from the page above. Plymire’s caption: “Religious dance by masked priests at Kum Bum.” Film footage of this festival is found in Collection 341 under the title “Film 4.”


A stunning shot of Potala Palace, residence of the Dalai Lama, dating back to the 7th century.  Plymire’s caravan would have passed this site during their 1927-1928 expedition.

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Plymire’s caption: “A Nepal woman carrying the child.” Undated.

During its descent from Tibet to Calcutta in 1928, Plymire’s caravan passed through Nepal, where he likely captured this striking image of a Nepalese woman and child.

Plymire’s missionary explorations led him through some of the most remote and  rugged landscapes in the world, and he often paused to capture these scenes of haunting beauty. In particular, multiple pages of Plymire’s photo album are dedicated to the frigid Zoji La, a mountain pass his caravan descended in March 1928. In one margin, Plymire writes, “Making the Zoji La (Pass) in deep snow. We descended from this pass by stepping off just ahead of the men, then slid down several hundred feet in the deep snow. Sometimes men completely disappeared under the snow, coming out farther down. See the same pass in summer on next page” (image below).


Plymire’s caption: “The Zoji La (Pass) when we descended we saw no rocks — completely filled with snow.  Sind Valley.” Undated.

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Plymire’s caption: “Our Tibetan Teacher. 1929-1930.”

For many of Plymire’s friends and supporters in the United States, the images and descriptions in his photo albums opened a window into a world they knew little about and allowed Plymire to describe the challenges of Christian evangelism far removed from the sawdust trails of Billy Sunday or big tent meetings of other revival preachers of the 1920s. Here, Victor Plymire faced the hurdles of language, culture, class, climate, and later, Communism.

After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the Plymires, along with many Western missionaries, fled their mission station in Tangar and sailed for the United States. Despite his best intentions, Victor Plymire never returned to Tibet, though he never abandoned his passion for the gospel or Tibet. The Plymires settled in Springfield, MO, where Victor worked for the Assemblies of God missions board until his death in 1956.

To learn more about the BGC Archives’ holdings on the life and ministry of Victor Plymire, visit Collection 341: Papers of Victor Plymire. The photograph album featured in this post is described under the title “Plymire, Victor G. IV.”

Billy Graham and the Presidential Election of 1944

Biographers of Billy Graham and scholars of American evangelicalism have long been interested in Graham’s involvement in U.S. politics, particularly his relationship with every U.S. president dating back to Harry S. Truman. While whole books have been dedicated to examining these connections, Graham’s earliest foray into presidential politics has, to date, escaped notice. This July, the BGC Archives highlights Billy Graham’s brief, but fascinating, correspondence with presidential candidate Thomas Dewey during his 1944 election campaign against incumbent Franklin D. Roosevelt.

In August of 1944, the twenty-four year old Billy Graham was serving in his first and only pastorate, a small congregation in the Chicago suburbs. After graduating from Wheaton College the year before, Graham and his new wife Ruth accepted a call to Western Springs Baptist Church, where they ministered for the next two years. During his pastorate, Graham became increasingly involved with Youth for Christ, touring the upper Midwest and eventually coast to coast, preaching at youth rallies with Torrey Johnson and other rising YFC evangelists.

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A rare image of Billy Graham as a young pastor, speaking at Western Springs Baptist Church in 1944.

Graham brought an evangelistic fervor to his pastorate at Western Springs, immediately establishing a vigorous outreach program, which included a Chicago-wide men’s fellowship group and a fund-raising drive to complete the church building. Most ambitiously, he launched a radio ministry, Songs in the Night, out of the church basement. The Sunday night program featured an evangelistic message from Graham and live music by soloist George Beverly Shea and the Carollers for Christ, a women’s quartet from Wheaton College. To promote the radio ministry and church programming, Graham started the church newsletter, also called Songs in Night, which featured original writing, sermon extracts, and news items.

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The August 1944 issue of the Songs in the Night newsletter, published a month after Billy Graham wrote to Thomas Dewey. Note that the issue commemorates the one year anniversary of Billy Graham’s pastorate.

A year into his pastorate at Western Springs, Billy Graham made his first recorded foray into presidential politics after reading a profile of Republican presidential candidate Thomas Dewey in the August 1944 issue of Reader’s Digest, one of the most popular general circulation magazines in the country. Whatever the exact contents of Stanley Walker’s article, “Snapshot of Tom Dewey,” his discussion of Dewey’s religious convictions caught Graham’s attention, and he mailed the following letter to Dewey’s New York residence, declaring his personal support and offering to galvanize evangelical votes by promoting Dewey’s campaign in Songs in the Night.

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A grainy photocopy of Billy Graham’s letter to presidential candidate Thomas Dewey.  While the original letter is found in the Western Springs Baptist Church Archives, a copy is held in BGC Archives Collection 74: Ephemera of Billy Graham, box 11, folder 2, along with original copies of the Songs in the Night newsletter.

In future presidential elections, many candidates would have given a great deal more than a brief personal statement in return for Billy Graham’s public support. However, Thomas Dewey likely never read Graham’s letter, and no endorsement of Dewey or even a reference to the election appeared in later issues of the church newsletter. Graham did receive a reply from Dewey’s office, dated August 24, 1944. Signed by Reuben B. Crispell, Acting Secretary, the letter did not provide the requested personal statement of faith or favorite Scripture passage Graham requested. Crispell did confirm that the Dewey children always observed nightly prayers at the governor’s mansion and underscored Dewey’s longstanding membership in the Episcopalian church, where he served on the vestry. Crispell even highlighted Dewey’s association with the Freemasons, listing his membership in at Kane Lodge Number 454, F. & A. M., NY; Aurora Grata Scottish Rite Consistory, Valley of Brooklyn; and Kismet Temple, Brooklyn, NY. The Crispell letter is located in recently-transferred Collection 580: Records of the Montreat Office, now held at the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association headquarters in Charlotte, NC.

Graham’s hopes for a Dewey administration were disappointed in November, when Franklin Roosevelt was reelected to a fourth term. This brief letter, however, provides a glimpse into the young evangelist’s burgeoning interest in presidential politics, his concern for the spiritual convictions of political candidates and the religious climate of the nation, and his lifelong emphasis on family values. Most significantly, Graham’s letter reveals a shift in his own political allegiances, a transformation he credits, in part, to Thomas Dewey.

Campus Ministry and Bird Watching: John Stott’s 1962 Africa Tour


NAIROBI, KENYA. Stott with the GCU President at Nairobi.

In the spring of 1962, John Stott (1921-2011) returned to the African continent for a second series of campus missions at colleges and universities at the invitation of the Pan-African Fellowship of Evangelical Students (PAFES) that was made up of English-speaking movements of the International Fellowship of Evangelical Students (IFES). This model of campus missions was repeated again and again in the 1960s when Stott also traveled to North America, Asia, Australia and New Zealand, and across Europe. Subsequent decades through the 1990s were marked by more travel and ministry. Known across the span of his life as an Anglican minister, Evangelical theologian, evangelist, and author, John Stott is described by his biographer, Timothy Dudley-Smith in the second volume of his two-part work, John Stott: A Global Ministry. “The start of the 1960s found John Stott an international figure in the field of student evangelism” (p. 105). During his Africa sojourn, Stott’s visits stretched from Sierra Leone to Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, and down to Rhodesia. Dudley-Smith captured glimpses of these stops (pp. 106-110). Stott’s first trip to the African continent in 1959 focused primarily on meetings in various cities of South Africa, but also added ministry and bird watching stops in Ruanda-Urundi, Uganda, and Kenya.)

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NAIROBI, KENYA. John Stott greets students at the Royal College in Nairobi, Kenya. Paula Holmes is standing at the right beyond Stott. Bob Howarth, who hosted Stott in Nairbobi, may be the man speaking to the bespectacled woman (left).

During this time, Stott was already the rector of All Souls, an Anglican church in London (see him in his clerical collar in one of the images below), Chaplain to the Queen, and vice president IFES. On the stage of independence movements sweeping the globe, Stott’s visit was timely for equipping and inspiring Evangelical students for witness, church involvement, and vocations in countries that were rapidly undergoing decolonization: Sierra Leone (1961), Ghana (1957), Nigeria (1960), Kenya (1963), Uganda (1962), and Zimbabwe (1979). The impact of these students on the growth of the church in the Global South has to be the subject of much further study.

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ACCRA, GHANA. “Rev. John Stott speaking to the members of the Accra Christian Fellowship at Mr. John Agama’s on 29th April, 1962 at 4:30 PM. Sermon: 1 Peter 2:1-11”

Several moments of Stott’s journey were captured by photographers, and the BGC Archives adds to this story through a series of five recently-discovered photographs, found in the Records of the International Fellowship of Evangelical Students (Collection 640). Although the photographer(s) is not identified, the images depict Stott on campuses in Ghana and Kenya. Among these, we see him addressing a group, meeting students and student leaders of University Christian Fellowship Legon in Accra, Ghana, and with Kenyan student leaders and several IFES staff.

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NAIROBI, KENYA. Stott (left) with unidentified man (possibly Bob Howarth), John and Paula Holmes, and unidentified man, most likely in Nairobi, Kenya. Note Stott’s pair of binoculars around his neck.

Other individuals identified in the photographs are Frank Horton and his wife Paula (center above), and (below) Ghanaian student leaders of UCF Legon, K.A. Ofosuhene (president) and G.K. Gyekye (secretary).

The images for the most part depict what would be expected: Stott speaking, Stott interacting with students. What adds interest to the images and makes them especially germane to understanding John Stott is the battered binocular case hanging from his neck in two of the images, underlining Stott’s lifelong love of nature. An avid and experienced bird watcher, Stott carted his binoculars throughout his Africa tour, always prepared to stop and admire the native avian population.

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ACCRA, GHANA. Stott with K.A. Ofosuhene (left, UCF Legon Pres.) and G.K. Gyekye (right, UCF Legon Sec.) of the University of Ghana. This image offers a closer look at Stott’s binocular case.

The BGC Archives holds a collection of Stott’s papers relating to his involvement in the Lausanne Movement (originals held at Lambeth Palace Library). Materials created by or about Stott appear in other BGC Archives collections as well, especially those that intersect with the Lausanne Movement records, records of InterVarsity Christian Fellowship (USA) and its Urbana Student Missionary Conventions, and recollections of him in oral history interviews—Lisa Espineli Chinn in her unprocessed interview, for example, recalls Stott’s visits to meet with staff and students of Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship of the Philippines (an IFES member movement). The BGC Archives’ collection of IFES records, which holds these photographs, is currently being processed by Archives staff.

Billy Graham’s “Strange Things”

Last Thursday we marked the one year anniversary of Billy Graham’s passing, the culmination of a remarkable life and legacy. This March, the BGC Archives pauses to commemorate the beginnings of Rev. Graham’s evangelistic ministry as a fledgling undergraduate preacher at Wheaton College in 1941.

The BGC Archives holds thousands of Billy Graham’s sermons and talks, on paper, wire recordings, phonograph records, audio tapes, digital files, films and videos. He delivered these messages in a wide variety of locations and circumstances, both in the United States and abroad, from the Sports Stadium in Berlin where Hitler once orated, to the TED (Technology, Entertainment and Design) conference in Monterey, CA, to the National Cathedral in Washington DC after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. Of all the Billy Graham sermons the Archives contains, one of the most interesting as well as the earliest in the collection is “Strange Things.”

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The entire sermon outline of “Strange Things,” dated November 5, 1941. Over its lifespan, the document has obviously been folded in half, stored in a three-ring binder, and taped down the middle to hold it open during preaching.

When Graham arrived on the Wheaton College campus as a twenty-one-year-old  freshman in 1941, he had already completed a thorough three-year course in Bible at Florida Bible Institute (now Trinity College). In addition to his coursework at FBI, Graham spent hundreds of hours preaching in churches across Florida and Georgia, held several multi-day evangelistic campaigns, and evangelized on street corners, over the radio, and from caravan to caravan in one of the country’s first trailer parks.

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September 13, 1941 article from the Wheaton-based Daily Journal 

After matriculating at Wheaton, Graham continued to preach while a student, accepting invitations from churches across the upper Midwest. Before long, he was called to pastor his very own congregation—the United Gospel Tabernacle in Wheaton, IL. Dubbed “The Tab” by locals, the United Gospel Tabernacle started as a prayer and Bible study group before morphing into a nondenominational church, drawing congregants from both city and college.

In the fall of 1940, the Tab was pastored by V. Raymond Edman, a professor of history  and acting interim president of Wheaton College. When asked to assume the presidency permanently, Edman resigned his role at the Tab and recommended Graham as his replacement. Already familiar with his preaching style, the congregation ratified Graham as their new pastor. Between September 1941, when he became pastor, and June 1943, when he graduated from Wheaton College, Graham preached at the Tabernacle over a hundred times. The Tab was a popular service for Wheaton undergraduates to attend on Sunday evenings, and many who saw and heard him preach there agreed that Graham’s style in later years remained much as the same as his student days. While perhaps a little less vocally and physically enthusiastic, the sermons Graham preached at the Tabernacle were not significantly different from the messages he preached before packed stadiums over the next several decades of evangelistic ministry.

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An advertisement for United Gospel Tabernacle services in The Record, the student newspaper of Wheaton College. August 19, 1942

During Graham’s tenure as pastor, the United Gospel Tabernacle met in the Wheaton Masonic Temple, a few blocks from the college campus.


The Masonic Temple in downtown Wheaton. Though devastated by fire in 1948, the Lodge was rebuilt nearly identical to the original structure.

The rented assembly hall featured a slightly raised platform with a simple pulpit and piano. Every Sunday, volunteers lined the hall with several hundred folding chairs before services commenced with hymns, prayers, and finally a sermon from Graham. His messages were always evangelism-oriented, calling listeners to respond to the call of Jesus Christ. Wheaton undergrad Ann-Lisa Madiera, a classmate of Graham’s and the Tab’s pianist, recalls the young preacher’s energy and conviction:

“He had something to say, and he said it so well, and . . . his whole control of his voice and the crescendos and decrescendos that all went with that message, you know, he was an enthusiastic preacher I would say. . . . He was enthusiastic about the message that he had to give and, well, the fact that the place was full every Sunday says something” (Oral History Interview with Ann-Lisa Madiera, Collection 74, T67.

Another student attendee remembers Graham’s budding talents as a communicator.

“Oh, he was tops. There was no question about it. And I think it was obvious that he was going to go places…. You could sense his heartbeat. That it was really coming from his heart. It wasn’t just knowledge that he picked up in college. I would say that’s the main thing. It came from his heart. You know, you can go to college and get a lot of knowledge, but it doesn’t always get down to the heart….  [His preaching style was] very plain. Very simple, very clear. You couldn’t mistake understanding what he was saying” (Lorraine Payne, Collection 74, T63).

Graham’s reputation as a preacher continued to grow during his undergrad days, and he often arranged for guest speakers at the Tab when he accepted weekend preaching invitations across the Midwest and especially throughout the summer vacation.

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An advertisement from The Record, highlighting the end of the academic term and Billy Graham’s final weeks as the Tab’s pastor. Graham graduated from Wheaton the same month. June 1, 1943.

The BGC Archives holds thousands of sermons Graham preached over the course of his ministry, but only one from his days as the Tab’s pastor—”Strange Things” (Many records from the United Gospel Tabernacle were lost when the interior of the Masonic hall, including the church office, was gutted by fire in 1948). The typed outline below is annotated in what looks like Graham’s handwriting and dated November 5, 1941, only a few weeks after Graham became the pastor of the Tabernacle. November 5th was a Wednesday, so the message may be a Bible study Graham presented during the Wednesday evening prayer meeting, rather than a Sunday sermon. But it contains the same emphasis that his classmates remembered from his sermons—the power of Jesus to confound the world, forgive sins, and save souls.

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This original manuscript is much worn, possibly reused for multiple preaching occasions, clearly previously folded and held together by clear tape. The number 850 at the top of the first page was one assigned by the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association staff many years later, when they created an index of all Graham’s sermons.

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The sermon outline describes the “strange things” of Jesus—how strange the Pharisees and Sadducees found this man who said such outrageous words, knew their thoughts, and performed miraculous deeds. Graham’s conclusion was a fitting introduction to the message he would continue to preach for the next sixty years: “That man is well saved who can glorify God in his own house. Man’s chief end is to glorify God, but until his sins are forgiven he has lost his chief end.”

A digital copy of “Strange Things” is available to view here on the Billy Graham Sermon Database, along with other sermon outlines and transcripts from the 1940s to the 2000s.

Reminiscences about Graham by his Wheaton College classmates, including his congregants at the United Gospel Tabernacle, are available in Collection 74: Ephemera of Billy Graham.

The Travels of Corrie ten Boom


Corrie ten Boom on her travels.

Dutch evangelist and writer Corrie ten Boom is likely best known today for her best-selling autobiography The Hiding Place. Published in 1971, The Hiding Place describes the ten Boom family’s courageous efforts, inspired by their Christian faith, to hide Jewish refugees during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. The book documents the ten Boom’s harrowing work in Amsterdam, ultimate discovery by the Nazis, and Corrie and her sister Betsie’s experiences in Ravensbrück, a women’s concentration camp in northern Germany, where Betsie died of starvation in December 1944. To date, The Hiding Place has sold millions of copies worldwide and was adapted into a film of the same title by World Wide Pictures in 1975.

While Corrie ten Boom’s legacy of love, sacrifice, and forgiveness during the horrors of World War II is remembered and celebrated, less well-known is her Christian service after the war. Following her release—due to a clerical error—in December 1944, Corrie returned to the Netherlands where she established a home called the Schapendunien for concentration camp survivors. That same year she founded the Ten Boom Foundation (reorganized as the Corrie ten Boom Stichting in 1960) and published her first account of her wartime experiences titled Gevangene En Toch… Herrinneringen Uit Scheveningen, Vught En Ravensbruck (1946). From 1945 until she retired from active ministry in 1977, Corrie became a sought-after writer and evangelist, publishing books in multiple languages and crisscrossing the globe to speak at events sponsored by Youth for Christ, J. Edwin Orr’s Revival Fellowship Team, the International Congress on World Evangelization, and eventually under the auspices of her own Foundation, among many others.

Today, the BGC Archives is home to an assortment of Corrie ten Boom materials, including family photo albums, recordings of evangelistic messages, personal correspondence, and Corrie ten Boom Stichting publications.

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Corrie’s 1966 passport, which includes her signature at the bottom and describes her with blue eyes and “greying” hair.

This February, the BGC Archives features its collection of Corrie ten Boom’s passports. Spanning 1948-1971, these documents record Corrie’s burgeoning evangelistic ministry, as she traveled through various military occupation zones in post-war Europe and later around the world. For the next three decades, Corrie visited more than 60 countries and six continents, proclaiming the Christian gospel of forgiveness and reconciliation. A sampling of countries included in Corrie’s passports include: East and West Germany, the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Japan, South Africa, Spain, Hong Kong, Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, Israel, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Hungarian People’s Republic, Poland, Vietnam, Indonesia, Cuba, Mexico, USSR, Brazil, Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Ethiopia.

The five passports below offer a brief glimpse into the extraordinary life of a Dutch watchmaker’s daughter who did not begin official ministry work until the age of 54, but whose remarkable story of Christian perseverance and forgiveness remains just as compelling today.

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Corrie ten Boom’s 1948 passport, issued three years following her release from Ravensbrück.

Corrie’s 1948 passport above lists her occupation as “Director of a sanatorium,” referring to the home she founded for concentration camp survivors in the Netherlands.

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A travel pass issued to Corrie ten Boom in December 1948 granting permission to enter the US Military Zone of Germany.

In 1949, Corrie rented a former concentration camp in Darmstadt, Germany, where she established a center for displaced persons and other war refugees, offering a safe place to recover from the trauma of the war. She continued to raise funds to support the camp until it closed in 1960.

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Corrie’s 1952 passport is the only one held by the BGC Archives which lists ten Boom’s occupation as a “Missionary.”

Corrie’s 1952 passport reflects her growing evangelistic ministry outside of Europe, including travels to east Asia and Israel (see below).

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A tourist visa (right) permitting entry to Japan in April 1952, declaring Corrie ten Boom is “Approved for entry into Japan by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers.” The wax stamp bears the imprint of the Dutch embassy.

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Above: a travel visa to Israel issued in May 1953. Fourteen years later, the State of Israel recognized Corrie ten Boom as Righteous Among the Nations for her service to the Jewish community during World War II. As part of the recognition service, Corrie planted a tree in the Garden of the Righteous at the Yad Vashem (World Holocaust Remembrance Center) in Jerusalem in December 1967.

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Corrie ten Boom’s 1963 passport. Note that she lists her occupation as an “authoress.”

Corrie ten Boom’s 1963 passport reflects her growing career as a writer. Her first book, Gevangene En Toch (1946) was revised for an English edition in 1947. By 1963 she had published Amazing Love (1953), Common Sense Not Needed (1957), Viele Fragen? Nur Eine Antwort!, Defeated Enemies (1962), and Not Good If Detached (1963). Corrie also expanded her writing into newsletters in Dutch and English, updating supporters on her activities.

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Corrie’s travel visa to East Germany in 1964, her first foray to East Germany following her release from Ravensbrück.

1964 marked another momentous occasion for Corrie ten Boom—a return to Ravensbrück concentration camp in what was then East Germany to speak to locals about her experiences as a prisoner there. In her newsletter, Corrie wrote, “Now I could tell here how I had come through alive and victorious, not through my faith, which was weak and wavering, but carried by Jesus Himself.” For more details about Corrie’s 1964 travels to Ravensbrück and Auschwitz in 1964, see the page from her newsletter It’s Harvest Time! at the bottom of the page.

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In Corrie’s 1966 passport, she recycled a previous passport photo and changed her occupation to “evangelist.”

In 1966, Corrie was invited to address the World Congress on Evangelism, an American-led conference held in Berlin whose stated theme was “One Race, One Gospel, One Task.” Organized and sponsored by Christianity Today and the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, the Congress papers and reports illuminated the shifting center of global Christianity from Europe and North America to the global south. Corrie would late speak at the Congress’s successor, the International Congress on World Evangelization in Lausanne, Switzerland in 1974.

ten boom 1967

Corrie ten Boom’s 1967 passport. Her occupation is left blank.

Though increasingly plagued by ill health, Corrie’s later years were just as busy and brought increasing international fame. Corrie spent her 75th birthday working with World Vision in war-torn Vietnam where she earned the moniker “Double-old Grandmother.” In 1968, Corrie published The Hiding Place, a retelling of her wartime experiences in Amsterdam and Ravensbrück, which became a best-seller and BGEA-produced film in 1975. That same year, the Beje, the ten Boom home in Amsterdam, opened to the public as a museum commemorating the family’s heroic sacrifices during the war. Corrie retired from evangelistic ministry in 1977 and relocate to California, where she suffered a series of strokes and in 1983 died on her birthday (April 15) at the age of 91.

For more information about Corrie ten Boom’s life and ministry, visit Collection 78: Ephemera of Corrie ten Boom.

Below: The November-December 1964 issue of Corrie ten Boom’s newsletter, It’s Harvest Time! This issue describes Corrie’s first visit to East Germany since her release from Ravensbrü's harvest time!


Ruth Bell Graham and Peace With God

Archival materials find their way to the Billy Graham Center Archives in a myriad different ways. Some materials arrive en masse, in shipping pallets or moving trucks. Other materials wander through the Archives’ doors an item or two at a time. While most collections consist of preplanned donations, other items find their way to the Archives’ vault by way of serendipity—a chance discovery in a grandparent’s attic or secondhand bookseller.

In much the same way, this first edition copy of Billy Graham’s Peace with God traveled a circuitous road to the BGC Archives. Discovered in a yard sale by a casual browser, the book’s fly leaf revealed a startling previous owner: Ruth Bell Graham.


The fly leaf of this first edition copy of Peace With God lists the Graham family home address in Little Piney Cove, Montreat, N.C. and contains Ruth Graham’s revisions for the second edition, published in 1984.

Not only did the slim, dark green first edition belong to Ruth Graham, its pages are riddled with her annotations. The unsuspecting yard sale browser quickly realized the unique value of the book and donated it to the Billy Graham Center Archives in 1997, where it is now housed in Collection 15: Papers of Billy Graham.


Ruth Graham’s distinctive, sloping handwriting

After finding home at the Billy Graham Center Archives, more details emerged about Ruth Graham’s copy of her husband’s celebrated book. Published by Doubleday & Company in 1953, Peace With God was Billy Graham’s fourth book, but quickly became his most recognized. In his 1997 autobiography, Just As I Am, Billy Graham describes the laborious process of writing Peace With God, dictating the first draft into an old-fashioned Ediphone in just ten days. Graham submitted the final manuscript in August 1953 and Peace With God was published three months later, dedicated to Ruth’s father, L. Nelson Bell and becoming an immediate best-seller. To date, Peace With God has been translated into over fifty languages with millions of copies disseminated around the globe (284).


Billy and Ruth Graham standing in front of Blanchard Hall on the Wheaton College campus, 1993.

While Ruth Graham would later become a published author in her own right, she played a pivotal role in the creation of her husband’s first best-seller. “Ruth was my greatest helper in giving me ideas,” Graham writes in Just As I Am, “She has always been a storehouse of stories and illustrations” (284). The Graham’s writing collaboration is all the more illustrated by Ruth’s personal copy of Peace With God, which contains her revisions for the book’s second edition, published in 1984. The best-seller was more than thirty years old when work began on the second edition, and Ruth’s sharp eyes and apt judgments worked to bring the book up-to-date while retaining its core message. With her bold, distinctive handwriting, Ruth covered the pages of Peace With God with marginalia and yellow sticky notes, offering suggestions, observations, quotations, and writing tips. Ruth begins her revisions with a brisk style suggestion on the book’s half title page (“When using quotes, either give credit or avoid quotation marks”) before moving on to overhaul the table of contents, where she re-titled nearly every chapter and section and shuffled their order, changes that appear in the second edition of Peace with God.

pwg table of contents

Ruth Graham’s revised table of contents for the second edition of Peace With God.

In the book’s second chapter, Ruth reflects on the current status of the Bible in American culture, scrawling across the top of page 24: “Bible reading required in Catholic schools in Poland; forbidden in Am. schools.” She also added sticky notes recommending an unidentified Hebrew University study on modern Bible translation and a clipping on the Big Bang Theory. An oft-repeated maxim of Ruth’s, identifying the Bible as “our one sure guide in an unsure world,” appears on pages 24 and 31.

One Sure Guide

A favorite truism of Ruth’s, “One sure guide in an unsure world,” is repeated several times in the book’s second chapter, “The Bible.”

For chapter six, Ruth proposed “The Day After” in lieu of its original title, “After Death—What?” and added several quotations from C.S. Lewis in the margins: “War does not increase death; Death is total in every generation” and “The only certain thing about life is death” (68).


Ruth’s revisions for the beginning of chapter 6. Under the original title she has written, “Should be closing chapter” and recommends “a better verse” in place of I Samuel 20:3.

Quotations from C.S. Lewis are not the only new voices Ruth Graham added to the second edition of Peace With God. Alongside the Oxford don, Ruth suggested quotations from a range of figures, including Blaise Pascal, Bishop Goodwin Hudson, Martin Luther King, Jr., Ronald Reagan, her brother-in-law, evangelist Leighton Ford, and various newspapers and theological works, such as W. G. T. Shedd’s Dogmatic Theology.

MLK quote

In chapter seven, “Why Jesus Came,” Ruth adds a quotation attributed to Martin Luther King, Jr, describing the crucifixion as “The only pain to wring a cry from Him. He was tasting the doom of the damned” (94).

This broad range of authors, theologians, and even politicians reflect Ruth’s own personal reading habits and awareness of social trends. Her comments range from theological statements to cultural observations. On Billy Graham’s central chapter, “The New Birth,” Ruth observed, “Need a statement on the misconception and misuse of being ‘Born Again'” (133), and she later worried about changing attitudes toward sexual ethics in the American Church. “In view of current divorce rate among Christians—needs rewriting” she recommended for Billy’s chapter on the Christian life. Her notes on chapter 15, “The Christian and the Church,” reflect her experiences as a child of missionaries in China and her concern for Christians undergoing persecution around the globe. Headlining chapter 15, Ruth writes, “Needs rewriting in light of E. Europe, N. Korea, the DRC and other countries today” (173). A few pages later she adds, “Keep in mind the ‘underground church, the house churches'” (176).


Pages 186-187 are two Ruth Graham revised most heavily, reflecting her criticisms of “stingy Christians” and the Church’s failure to provide for the needy, while voicing her concern about “The Social Gospel (no such thing, there is only one gospel).”

Ruth Bell Graham’s voluminous revisions for the second edition of Peace With God offer a glimpse into both the Graham’s collaborative work in evangelistic ministry and a sketch of Ruth’s own personality—her curiosity, assertiveness, humor, and unwavering commitment to what she believed was right. In the Preface to the first edition of Peace With God, Billy Graham thanks his “loyal and faithful wife, who has read and reread the manuscript” (8). In the second edition published thirty years later, he credited “my wife, Ruth, who worked many hours on its revision” (10). Whatever the mysterious circumstances that brought Ruth Graham’s personal copy of Peace With God from Montreat, N.C. to an obscure yard sale to Wheaton, Illinois, the Billy Graham Center Archives is grateful to now hold this item documenting those “many hours.”